Language and Place


Pasquataskamik  is the real vision of a place in traditional Cree. “According to the Mushkegowuk interview, pasquataskamik is the Crew word used for traditional territory, all the environment, nature, and everything it contains (Restoule, 2013)”. It represents the place with all the interaction that happens within that places like the river who brings everything men need for living. They also said that the new generation use noscheemic, a word a lesser meaning to describe the place.  The usage of the right word ( pasquataskamik) and the understanding of it is the decolonization. “Large-scale capitalism, in particular, has presented new problems and perceived threats to the environment. In order to protect the land and the relationship to land that are integral to Inninowuk identity, territorial self-governance is a necessity. (Restoule, 2013)”.

Being Proud of Your Culture

I think one of the most important things in learning from a place is developing the sense of pride in their own culture. In my field of study, I can make links to what students know of their place and what the curriculum wants me to teach or even what I know as a teacher. The student can even be a specialist of their own place and sharing their knowledge with the class.

Linking French and the Place

Realizing that, you do not start at zero while learning French is important. Students have to realize that what they know can also be relate to French. Words from their place can be similar to those in French, etc. They must link the place to what they already know. Is something done in French in their environment?  After being asked, they may be more watchful about this in their everyday life and develop a positive feeling about French in their community.


Do you even feel like you rediscover things in your place after you learned new concepts in your classes?


Restoule, J-P., Gruner, S. and Metatawaben, E (2013). Learning from  Place : A Return to Traditionnal Mushkegowuk Ways of Knowing.

Three visions of Curriculum

Before the Reading

Curriculum the Followers the Research

I think that curriculum is made by people of government. They decide the curriculum with various research and what the consensus of the best teaching technic is in the scientific community. They also check how well the new curriculum will be received by the public.

During my Reading

Curriculum, the Controlling Hand

When I was reading, I remember an experience I had in one of my classes. The teacher was demonstrating results of research about reducing illiteracy and said a remark about wondering why the government does not apply the tips in the research.  My colleges answer that the government does it on purpose, because dumb people are easier to manipulate. At that time, many others and I agree with them.

After the reading

Curriculum, the Results of Populace

After my readings, I came to understand that I may not have been right in both of my interpretation.  The government is not really our perfect representation of it who follow all the good researches in their decision and it is not an evil corporation that is trying to dumb the voters for having an easier time passing some bad law. It is in the middle of the two. Politicians are busy men that do not really have the time and the formation to refer to research in their decision (Levin. 2008). They are grounded in reality and what matters is the electors. Most of the time their decisions are made with their ideology in mind, because the electors that vote for them believe in that ideology. Curriculum is a product of our voting and politicians are just trying to read what the majority of the population want for their decision.

My Reaction

I was not surprised at all by the content of the article. In fact, after reading the article, I feel a bit naïve in my reading answer. I knew how politics work and that the curriculum is heavily influenced by the politician’s ideology and surveys was no big surprise. I think our politics system is flawed, but I do not how or if we can solve it. So right now, the only thing left to do is to play along and put as much as political pressure as we can to convince the politicians on our view of the world.


What kind of political pressure can we do to change the curriculum?

Levin, B. (2008). Curriculum policy and the politics of what should be learned in schools. In F. Connelly, M. He & J. Phillion (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of curriculum and instruction (pp. 7 – 24).

The Perfect Student

Commonsense Is a Cultural

Like we said in the first week, commonsense vary with time and space. It depends on culture you are all leaving. With this in mind, the question is not precise enough. What does it mean to be a “good” student according to the commonsense? Which commonsense are we talking about? Are we talking about Saskatchewan’s commonsense? If that’s the case, I do not know precisely. I have been here 9 months and I only visit one elementary school. So my vision of the commonsense may be different than what is commonly recognized as the commonsense in Saskatchewan.

The perfect student

Being bright

One of the first things that strikes me as odd in this school is the emphasis on being a bright. A lot of the students are often reminded on how much bright they are. This strike me as odd because most of the time, because they were using the word bright even if with a situation that may not apply (Like on behaviour). I realized that bright can mean a lot of different things in our commonsense so it means nothing and we must find other characteristics to know what is a good student.

Being Perseverant

Often the teachers will often identify bad students as lazy. When confronting with a problem they cannot solve, they become “lazy” and start wasting their time. So a good and bright student is someone a persevering to do his task and only waste their time when they finish the work they must do.

Being Politically Correct

The students that have a lot problems with teachers are often because they have comportment harmful for the other students and the good functioning of the classroom. Being harmful is problematic for everyone, but disturbing the classroom cover a lot of different behaviours.

Being Responsible

The second thing that strikes me as odd in this school is the responsibility of the acts of the student is put in the hands of the student which was not really the case in Quebec.  They do not like students that try to cover their mistakes with a long story. If they make a mistake, they must accept it and move on.

The Problem With the Perfect Student

“The norm of schooling like the norms of society, privilege and benefit some group and identities while marginalizing and subordinating others on the basics on the class, gender, sexual orientation, religion, disabilities, language and other on issues. (Kumashiro,2010). ”In this quote, Kumashiro explain that no norm from school is able to be neutral and not privilege a certain people. Later in this chapter, he explains that one of the approaches of anti-oppression is to critique norms like curriculum. In this part we will critique how we view the perfect student and see what group of people it may oppress. We may also discuss how it is difficult to not them into consideration in our vision of the perfect student.

Students With Disabilities

Often people only care about with physical disabilities, because they do not really understand how people with intellectual disabilities work. I work a lot with those people with those kinds of disabilities and I must say it necessitates a lot of rethinking of our actions to start understanding them. What we see as simple, maybe a mountain of complexity for them. We also often that they are human beings pride that so often taking away for the sake of efficiency. The perfect student necessitates that learn a lot of social norms, so they can be politically correct, so they look normal. The perfect student also wants them to be perseverance, but they already experiment a life of failures.

Student With Trauma and Bad Experience

Often people forget one does not simply shrug off a trauma or other bad experience. This transpires in every aspect of their life and this may not even be logical. The student may not even be able to explain that they have a trauma or bad experience on subject which left the teacher guessing on the problem. He may sometimes have bad social behaviour, because he cannot have normal behaviour with what he has lived. He may not be responsible, because he may try to use escapism to escape his problem.

And More…

There are even more kinds of the students that may not find the perfect student representation like immigrants, first nation students, etc.

Kumashiro (2010). Against Common Sense, Chapter 2 (pp. 19 – 33) – “Preparing Teachers for Crisis: What It Means to Be a Student”

Education Is Exploring

“The greatest sign of success for a teacher … is able to say, ‘the children are now working as if I did not process.’” . This quote from Montesorri has highlighted two of the most actors in education : the student and the teacher.

Student, the Explorer

The student in this quote is described as being active learners instead of being passive one. He explores the worlds around him with that aspiration to discover his secret. To learn something, he needs the study the environment carefully and figure out the problem arises by itself. The way to the problem is presented suggested a certain solution and is designed in ways that student should be naturally able to discover it. His goal is to be able to discover the real world without the helping hand of the teacher.

The Teacher, the Designer

The teacher’s role in this quote is a guide. His role is not to tell the knowledge, but to modify the environment around the student. The teacher presents an environment that encourages learning all the knowledge that is required in the curriculum. If the student no longer needs the tweaking that teacher provides that mean he is a good learner that develop multiple learning strategies. The teacher should be proud that student no longer need him because it indicates that he was doing a good job.

Curriculum With This Vision

According to this vision, the curriculum should put the emphasis on learning strategies more than on a specific knowledge, because, with those strategies, the student will be able to find that knowledge by himself. It should explain how the teacher should create learning situation. What are the good elements that will make the student discover the notion? This is the question that the curriculum should answer.


Did you experience a situation that teacher craft for you and , with the way it was constructed make you understand a concept more than any words?

Blog week 2, Tyler rationale

My experience

My experience may differ from a lot of person in the classroom. I barely experience the Tyler rationale in studying.  In my youth, I was the one of the first promotion the test the new curriculum in Quebec. The new curriculum was based of project -based teaching method.

Elementary school, the mix between two worlds

In elementary school, most of the teacher was doing their best to use projects in their evaluation. For example, one of the project in English class was the construction of theme park. We were using math to balance our budget. We also had to search the internet to know the cost of the ride and the roundabout. After the project was finish, the students present their work to their classmates. This project contradicts Tyler rationale, because followers of this philosophy think the task should be atomize and divide into smaller parts and they do not see the project as whole. “They (educators) must treat the field of action into sufficient into small units such that each is the smallest convenient size. (Schiro, 2013)”

In math, the teachers were showing different strategy to solve a problem. There was not a single solution to all math problems, but multiple paths that can all arrive to the same solution. What strategy you will use was a mix of personal preference and the problem you had to solve. The Tyler rationale believe the students are important, in the learning process, but must take the most efficient way to accomplish a task and not the way he personally prefer. “This refer to the Social Effenciency belief that, to be “efficient”, a learned behavior must become so ingrained that the learner responds automatically and in predetermined  manner to  a specific stimuli- without the contemplation or internal thought processing in working memory that typically occurs when a behavior is just been learned (as in Type to Learn). (Schiro, 2013)”

However, some teachers were still using the Tyler rationale in their teaching. It was mostly for dictation and tables of multiplication. The teachers were using the repetition of the task to make the students learn and they were only interest by the result.

High school, learning to learn

In high school, I was in an international school and the students must develop the academic skills of the international school’s curriculum.  This curriculum has competences like learning to learn, Homo Fabien and living in community that must be apply all school subjects. There was a lot of crossover between all school subjects; one of the project even integrate 8 different school subjects. It clearly contrasts with the vision of Tyler rationale who think tasks should be evaluated individually. The principals were also enforcing that philosophy and were meeting the teachers who want to do a more traditionist exam.

The good and the bad

Human is too complex

The problem is that Tyler rationale is that it does not care about a lot of aspects of the human condition. One of the core concept of the Behaviorism teaching is the black box. The black box is the idea that what happen in the student’s head should not be study, because it is impossible (or too difficult) to explore with objectivity.  Instead behaviorism researchers try to focus on what that can be seen, actions. “As a result, only those aspects of people that can be atomistically observed and measured-objective aspects are consider; the subjective  aspects of people, which are not observable, measurable, or atomistic, fade into the background . (Schiro, 2013)” The mistakes of this view of science is that a lot of things are left unexplained and limit your perspective on a specific problem a student can have.

Do it for yourself

The other problem is that Tyler rationale is that focus only on extrinsic motivation instead intrinsic motivation. In the article, the writer describes one of the machine that describe Tyler rationale philosophy and he laid out how the student is been motivated. “If they pass the test- with sufficient typing and accuracy-  they are given a reward in the form of a chance to play a game in which they practice the typing skills they have learned thus far. (Schiro, 2013)”In this description , the students are given reward after the work of learning is complete and he is a kind Skinner Box technique where to student is only motivated by the rewards after the tasks instead of the tasks themselves. This kind of motivation is short and may not be satisfying for the students. The intersect motivation on the hand is focus on making the task entertaining and keeping the students motivated by the task. The task no longer feels a chore the  student must accomplish to reach the real fun but more like the end-goal itself.  This kind of motivation keep the student motivated for longer and is usually more resilient.

Goodbye intuition Welcome Science

I think Tyler rationale is more a piece of history than a philosophy in our modern world. That does not mean that this philosophy did not help us understand the world around us. The biggest legacy that Tyler rationale bring to the table is the use of science. “It (scientific methodologies) refer to the methodology of technology and connoted a collection of techniques such as statistics, accurate measurement, task analysis, efficient engineering, and industrial management. (Schiro, 2013)” This part of the article mentions all the tools the social efficiently ideologist used to base their actions in the classroom. Before that Social Efficiency ideology, teachers were mostly using their intuition and their own experience to back their pedagogical decisions. The used of those tools was a huge advancement to make our teaching better. This mean we can based our teaching on facts instead of instinct.  Those tools are still used today, but they are used to demonstrate all the different aspects of being a human. Thanks to Tyler rationale doing the first steps, most the teacher practices should have a certain standard  of scientific rigor.


Do you think that Tyler rationale is piece of history or is it useful in today’s world?

Schiro, Michael (2013). Curriculum theory : Conflicting visions and enduring concerns, (2 Éd). SSGE